In the field of energy storage, machine learning has recently emerged as a promising modelling approach to determine the state of charge, state of health and remaining useful life of batteries. First, we review the two most studied types of battery models in the literature for battery state prediction: the equivalent circuit and physics-based models. Based on the current limitations of these models, we showcase the promise of various machine learning techniques for fast and accurate battery state prediction. Finally, we highlight the major challenges involved, especially in accurate modelling over length and time, performing in situ calculations and high-throughput data generation. Overall, this work provides insights into real-time, explainable machine learning for battery production, management and optimization in the future.